In this post we will discuss about the very basic of linux, that means linux file system and some of its command interface.
Introduction to Linux file system and command interface
Now you can have question in your mind that, there are so many operating systems, So what is the need to use the Linux Operating system?
>> It is secure, which means you can customize its security.
>> As it is an open source software, you can customize it easily.
>> It is faster than Windows
>> Lighter and easy
>> It is virus free or almost virus free
>> Like other operating system, it doesn’t crush so much.
>> The hardware requirement is so low.
>> It is great for Multiuser and Multitasking system.
Lets have a small description about the file system of Linux:
Generally, Linux file systems are: ext2, ext3, ext4, xfs, birtFS, jfs
On the other hand, windows file systems are:
NTFS and FAT32
In the case of drive letter:
Windows has : C, D,………………,Z
Linux has :
The SATA device are marked as: sdx1, sdx2,………….sdx15 ; where x=a,b,c,d
The DVD device are marked as: sr0/dvd
The USB device is marked as: sdx1; where x=a,b,c,d
Linux Installation system:
If you are planning to install Linux, then you can do this in 3 ways generally:
>> Dual boot : Here in this boot system you can install Linux operating system and other operating system, like windows. In this case at the starting of operating system, you may need to choose the operating system, you want to run.
>> Single boot (Only Linux) : in this boot system, you can only install the Linux operating system.
>> Virtual Box : In this system, you can use Linux virtually. Suppose that, you are using windows, you don’t want to use the dual boot, so you can just use various types of virtualization software. Some popular virtualization software are VMware, Virtual box etc.
Yes ! learn something about the Linux file system. Now we’ll learn about the basic of Linux CLI system.
1 2 3 4
Lets see the indication. I’ve open CLI mode in Linux. And after opening, it shows this. So for your better realization, I’ve indicated all the parts as 1,2,3,4. Here,
1 >> Is the user name. In my PC the user name is “ece”.
2 >> Host name.
3 >> The current location of the user, in my case, the current location is Desktop.
4 >> The sign indicates the type of the user. Generally, “$” indicates regular user and “#” indicates root user.
In Linux, there are mainly 3 types of user. They are:
- Root or Admin user.
- System user (service (mail/ ftp/games)- can’t login
- Regular user (Student, Guest etc.)
Working with CLI in Linux.
Lets type the following command:
[ece@localhost Desktop]$ chsh –l
This will return this:
Now lets try another command. Suppose, you want to work only in the CLI mode. So you need to press
Now you want to work in GUI or Graphical User Interface. So need to press,
If you want to log in as root user, then after opening CLI mode, just write su root.
Example :[ece@localhost Desktop]$ su root
Password: <Enter your password>[root@localhost Desktop]#
Look at the example carefully. The “$” sign changed to “#”, which means you can be able to logged in as a root user.
Now lets play with CLI mode.
Ctrl + l >> It will clear the CLI screen
Ctrl + Shift + +++ >> It will increase the screen size.
Ctrl + —- >>> It will reduce the screen size of CLI
Ctrl + Shift + t >> Open a new terminal
Alt + F2 >> It will open a gnome terminal.
That’s the end of this session. Hope that you all liked it. Thanks for being with us.